함안출장안마▒예약금없는출장샵◎함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안여자 안마방}➻〔함안구월동 마사지〕↭함안일반인 마사지 torrent✐함안건전한 마사지↺함안상하이 마사지▫함안게이 마사지テ함안다방 콜

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

창원출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

함안출장안마╎예약금없는출장샵的함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안태국 전통 마사지 단속}◆〔함안낙성대 마사지〕║함안후두 마사지☪함안안마방 오르가즘✡함안광주 안마방 후기✐함안양평 마사지☈함안창원 봉곡동 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 전라남도요괴 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

함안출장안마⊙예약금없는출장샵ψ함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안남친이랑 마사지}░〔함안공주 안마방〕¤함안안마방 레베카┹함안영화 히든 토렌트⇩함안토렌트 마사지┓함안카톡 조건⇏함안안산 줄리엣 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

함안출장안마↚출장부르는법▨함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안양산 안마방}⚘〔함안장전동 마사지〕♚함안모텔 아가씨➵함안안마방 교복╇함안국 안마방↾함안김해 출장 샵⊿함안여성 전신 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 광주출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

함안출장안마┗예약금없는출장샵┕함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안발바닥 마사지}㊣〔함안부산 서면 안마방〕✡함안도쿄 마사지❄함안하단 안마방☢함안피파 안마방┟함안온천장 안마방⇋함안마사지 강간

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 목포출장 사기 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

함안출장안마κ출장부르는법╜함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안김해 마사지}]〔함안안마방 비비기〕⚘함안덕계 마사지↬함안향남 마사지♭함안김원중 안마방┳함안곤지암 마사지♮함안부평 마사지 샵

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대구출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

함안출장안마함안문산 안마방

  • 용인청소년 안마방
  • 함안구로 안마방
  • 함안출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    함안출장안마➡예약ヘ함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안밀양 안마방}╝〔함안강남 안마방 내상〕⇦함안부산 서면 모텔〓함안여수 마사지ル함안울산 안마방┊함안출장샵예약◈함안여성전용 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 공주로드샵 단속 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 전주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

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    정읍대구 사우나 마사지 창원출장샵 의성로미 로미 마사지 란
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 평택출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    함안출장안마┶예약금없는출장샵↓함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안마사지 관리사}☠〔함안콜걸출장안마〕↹함안24시 마사지㍿함안홍콩 안마방◘함안안마방 위치↝함안전립선 마사지 부작용♂함안전주 마사지 클럽

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 충청북도대구 커플 동영상 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    함안출장안마¤24시출장샵↺함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안수원역 마사지}➷〔함안19금 마사지〕⇩함안장안동 마사지⊙함안엘림 마사지»함안마사지 카운터 알바⇩함안모텔출장♨함안검단 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 목포출장샵 .

    공주해피 오렌지 출장 샵
    합천아쿠아 마사지 젤 카지노사이트 해남신촌 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    함안출장안마♘예약금없는출장샵⇂함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안안마방 키스}☎〔함안월곶 마사지〕⇪함안안마방 역립♬함안아줌마 마사지♠함안신데렐라 안마방リ함안클리토리스 마사지►함안안마방 감염

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    함안출장안마ⓞ24시출장샵☺함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안창원 마사지}マ〔함안덕천동 마사지〕✎함안마사지 출장η함안사당 출장↺함안안마방 카드♂함안원룸 출장┕함안일반인 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 온라인카지노 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 보령사당역 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    함안출장안마•24시출장샵☼함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안춘천 마사지}↺〔함안잇몸 마사지〕↣함안오피걸↹함안연산 안마방♮함안부산 모텔 추천☝함안마포 마사지◇함안박시연 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    함안출장안마☠예약금없는출장샵ェ함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안제주 안마방}ラ〔함안가평 안마방〕⇌함안이발소 마사지»함안구미 모텔↔함안출장서비스☞함안구리 마사지♣함안역삼 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 단양계양구 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 포항출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 군포신림동 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that loveyangju.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    함안출장안마━예약キ함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안안마방 후기}☃〔함안스웨디시 마사지〕0함안부산 안마방 후기✿함안신천 모텔 추천☆함안셀룰라이트 마사지☻함안속초 모텔 추천♥함안판교 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 온라인카지노 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대구출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 천안출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    함안출장안마▒24시출장샵→함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안명동 마사지}♪ 〔함안강남역 안마방〕☆함안신당동 안마방ω함안우에하라 아이 마사지ρ함안발바닥 마사지⇋함안마사지 수면실⇃함안다방 모텔

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    산청마사지 기획물
    카지노사이트 강원도산남동 마사지 qdomain.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    함안출장안마オ예약£함안마사지 레전드 품번{함안삿포로 안마방}↕〔함안붕따우 마사지〕◦함안강남 안마방 가격╤함안외국인 안마방❂함안대만 호텔 마사지ω함안박중현 안마방♪함안마사지 사진

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.함안출장안마함안영주 마사지♩함안동두천 안마방♨〔함안미금역 안마방〕함안양배추 안마방✪함안일본식 마사지↿함안세r시 마사지➶함안에로 마사지⊥대전출장안마예약함안텀블러 마사지╋함안미금역 안마방┑(함안동대문 마사지)함안서울 조건 카톡▨함안분당 마사지 추천♮함안군산 마사지┪함안출장 서비스⇪함안출장안마홍천코코넛오일 마사지함안충주 안마방⇪함안정준하 마사지ト{함안방콕 에스코트}함안안마방 시스템❦함안뒷목 마사지➻함안안마방 골뱅이┸함안온양 마사지✥함안피부 마사지➵함안태국 에스코트◐【함안스웨 디시 마사지 란】함안여성전용 마사지 구인☑함안구로디지털단지 안마방☭함안서울 출장 마사지ケ함안마사지 카운터 알바☴함안텀블러 마사지➳함안향남 안마방➨(함안수유리 안마방)함안검단사거리 안마방┄함안울산 삼산동 안마방☪함안포항 여관↺함안황제 마사지❤함안동래 안마방▶함안이상근 마사지△﹝함안스포츠 마사지 자격증﹞함안진접 안마방↔함안안마방 단발╤함안안마방 카드✪함안보라카이 마사지♩예약금없는출장샵천안암사동 마사지출장부르는법함안장전동 마사지μ함안석계 마사지﹌〖함안발마사지〗함안검단 마사지☒함안남친이랑 마사지↞함안태국 출장 마사지⇩함안강서 마사지♡함안출장안마함안출장안마온라인카지노함안지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지함안안마방 지명녀함안마사지 단속함안부산역 모텔 가격함안출장안마함안강릉 안마방●함안안마방 분수▽<함안안마방 옵션>함안비염 마사지↑함안스웨디시 마사지ウ함안안마방 황제의자♫함안마사지 크림↝부평송도 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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