24시출장샵
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  • 파주콜걸☎예약금없는출장샵↩파주국산 안마방‹파주중국 안마방›▶《파주전립선 마사지 비용》♮파주안마방 의자↛파주호텔 걸▣파주마사지 어플✔파주유흥 마사지⊙파주부산 해운대 출장

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    평택출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    파주콜걸↛출장부르는법⇙파주국산 안마방‹파주마사지 gif›┤《파주여수 마사지》⊙파주중리동 안마방╠ 파주부산 출장╬ 파주폰섹 녹음☈파주세븐 안마방▪파주부산 서면 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 수원전주 여관 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    파주콜걸☛예약♡파주국산 안마방‹파주자전거 안마방›☁《파주상록수역 안마방》♩파주광주 안마방 후기☵파주경산 마사지♣파주안마방 torrent♩파주오목교 안마방➺파주모텔 출장마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    파주콜걸0예약금없는출장샵➺파주국산 안마방‹파주타이 마사지 가격›↭《파주다낭 밤문화 마사지》╮파주[한국]새로운 안마방 아가씨.wmv.torrent╆파주video fc2 마사지┭파주국 안마방ニ파주안마방 수면실╔파주인천 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 울산출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    파주콜걸╘출장부르는법┙파주국산 안마방‹파주안마방 동영상›↹《파주안양1번가 마사지》♬파주오키나와 마사지⇎파주안마방 텀블☞파주교대 안마방♝파주유성 마사지♜파주안마방 휴게텔

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 무주부산 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    파주콜걸↺24시출장샵♤파주국산 안마방‹파주마사지 모음›┠《파주장안동 마사지》┺파주광안리 안마방▫파주타이 안마방セ파주태백 마사지☆파주안마방 나이대➥파주포이 펫 카지노 롤링

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 창원출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    파주콜걸파주게이 안마방

  • 충청북도안마방 누드
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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    파주콜걸┪24시출장샵☆파주국산 안마방‹파주안마방 첫경험›♩《파주화성 마사지》↹파주안마방 aviθ파주상대보호구역λ파주상무지구 마사지ロ파주최음제 마사지0파주코코넛오일 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 철원제주시 연동 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 전주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    광주출장안마
    정읍대전 안마방 추천 카지노사이트 보성모텔 다방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 천안출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    파주콜걸█예약금없는출장샵♠파주국산 안마방‹파주fc2 일본 마사지›↓《파주안마방 레베카》♛파주인덕원 안마방╝파주제주시청 마사지➵파주세븐 안마방▒파주장기동 안마방➛파주동대문 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 울진안마방 대기 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    파주콜걸☜출장부르는법♝파주국산 안마방‹파주자전거 안마방›┝《파주폼롤러 마사지》☺파주v라인 마사지❈파주모란 마사지ム파주전립선 마사지➦파주소라넷 안마방⇩파주안마방 파워배드

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 부산출장안마 .

    구리서울대입구 마사지
    성주부산 모텔 추천 수원출장안마 대전대딸
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    파주콜걸│예약✗파주국산 안마방‹파주일산 여관›♪ 《파주안마방 nf 뜻》➡파주애인대행✐파주안마방 위험⇉파주안마χ파주흥출장안마♨파주임산부 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 천안출장안마 .

    파주콜걸↷예약⇥파주국산 안마방‹파주엑소 안마방›ホ《파주출장맛사지》✿파주안마방 창업⇪파주장요근 마사지⇪파주고딩 마사지╖파주안마방 체험═파주태평역 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 원주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 연천탑 클래스 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    파주콜걸❈출장부르는법┳파주국산 안마방‹파주죽전 안마방›»《파주라오스 마사지 2차》✲파주마사지 검색╪파주안마방 싼►파주지행 안마방♚파주발산역 안마방⇛파주video fc2 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    파주콜걸☋24시출장샵↕파주국산 안마방‹파주한국 마사지›➧《파주아침에 안마방》⊙파주마송 안마방⇛파주성남 마사지▤파주고딩 안마방ハ파주모텔┮파주안마방 통화기록

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 김천오피 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 창원출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 서울출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 광주존슨즈 베이비 오일 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 온라인카지노 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    파주콜걸⇆예약▌파주국산 안마방‹파주을지로 안마방›♥《파주신천 모텔 추천》➻파주안마방 나이대♥파주청주 안마방»파주갑상선 마사지1파주이태원 마사지λ파주애인대행

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 군산출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대전출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    파주콜걸╬ 예약⇔파주국산 안마방‹파주말레이시아 마사지›☏《파주화성 마사지》ψ파주고등학생 안마방♛파주안마방 전립선┨파주장애인 안마방⇐파주잇몸 마사지►파주향남 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    화성검단사거리 안마방
    부산출장안마 고령간석동 안마방 서울출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    파주콜걸⊙예약╎파주국산 안마방‹파주사상 마사지›π《파주응암 마사지》☆파주둔산동 엘 마사지▫파주연산동 마사지▨파주동래 안마방▨파주경주 마사지♫파주fc2 남친 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.파주콜걸파주관평동 마사지♦파주성대역 안마방⇩《파주인도 마사지》파주동네 마사지β파주동남아 마사지ヒ파주구리 안마방┷파주일본 보빨➦대전출장샵24시출장샵파주안마방 안마⇡파주도봉구 안마방↫‹파주남성 전용 마사지›파주부평 안마방╋파주출장 모텔➸파주석계 마사지┰파주마사지 영상⇦파주콜걸충청남도강남역 마사지파주출장마사지⇠파주대구 출장마사지▷(파주남성 전용 마사지)파주수원역 마사지♝파주귀 마사지¤파주상암동 안마방⇁파주안마방 노출⇩파주얼굴 마사지 기계¤파주강서 마사지⇏〖파주안성 안마방〗파주남성 마사지⇪파주강서구청 마사지θ파주마사지 레전드⇙파주안마방 방구╮파주삼성역 안마방│파주화성 안마방⇢{파주전립선 마사지 하는 법}파주콜걸❦파주조건 만남╣파주태백 마사지⇃파주로미 로미 마사지 란♀파주철원 안마방✓파주마산 마사지╈<파주춘천 마사지 후기>파주군산 모텔 가격⇔파주안마방 한국╏파주신천 모텔─파주마사지 3만원⊙출장부르는법양양오일 마사지 야동예약금없는출장샵파주출장안마 가격↿파주향남 마사지﹃〖파주남성 전용 마사지〗파주왕십리 마사지╕파주일본야동 마사지ホ파주제주시청 마사지⇣파주마사지 일본┴파주콜걸파주콜걸전주출장샵파주안마방 튜브파주안마방 키스 가능파주마포 마사지파주조건 만남 서울파주콜걸파주수암 마사지♧파주김천 안마방⇚《파주콜걸강추》파주천안 만남░파주정자 안마방╬파주모텔 tumblr⇛파주안마방 모텔⊕목포목포 모텔 추천

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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