정선출장맛사지╡예약●정선단양 안마방{정선포항 마사지}↚﹛정선경마 시간﹜∷정선유성 안마방 후기1정선엄지 눈 근육 마사지⇛정선군산 안마방↸정선안마방 옵션▩정선예약금 없는 출장

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

정선출장맛사지﹃예약금없는출장샵◦정선단양 안마방{정선일본마사지}♥﹛정선태국 아로마 마사지﹜☺정선베트남 마사지 가격↾정선어깨 마사지◊정선까치산 안마방サ정선해외 안마방➢정선마사지 카운터 알바

The governments of more than 190 nations 충청북도노원 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

정선출장맛사지ワ24시출장샵☒정선단양 안마방{정선안마방 전화기록}큐﹛정선안산 고잔동 마사지﹜▒정선김해 출장 마사지ク정선포항 여관✄정선레즈 안마방▣정선안마방 체험♪정선안마방 질싸

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

정선출장맛사지♩24시출장샵◈정선단양 안마방{정선회음부 마사지}┘﹛정선광주 스타 안마방﹜⇩정선안마방 똥꼬╰정선안마방 토렌트╙정선압구정 마사지♥정선제주 안마방╗정선경주 동천동 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대구출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

정선출장맛사지♘24시출장샵╢정선단양 안마방{정선프라하 마사지}ワ﹛정선남자 전립선 마사지﹜ケ정선인천공항 마사지☂정선탑 클래스ν정선아다 안마방♥정선여자 모텔♗정선안마방 스탭

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 천안단체 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

정선출장맛사지┻24시출장샵┖정선단양 안마방{정선목포 마사지}⇗﹛정선안마방 가는 법﹜▥정선앙헬레스 마사지❤정선마사지 썰╩정선호치민 마사지☟정선영종도 안마방█정선모텔 여자

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 창원출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

정선출장맛사지정선동해 마사지

  • 파주모텔 tumblr
  • 정선강서 안마방
  • 정선출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    정선출장맛사지➚예약금없는출장샵☀정선단양 안마방{정선만남}◇﹛정선계양구 안마방﹜↛정선안마방 유출↔정선마사지 초대남⇡정선레이크호텔 마사지☃정선중국전통마사지◐정선수암 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 상주동탄 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, smatoos.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    광주출장안마
    영암안마방 전화기록 온라인카지노 거창울산 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 창원출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    정선출장맛사지↡예약금없는출장샵✉정선단양 안마방{정선동해 마사지}▷﹛정선안마방 오랄﹜⇡정선안양1번가 마사지╡정선홈 타이 마사지↬정선안마방 골뱅이↖정선막탄 마사지♂정선안마방 무한샷

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 진안안마방 물다이 몰카 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    정선출장맛사지⇌예약금없는출장샵❤정선단양 안마방{정선하노이 마사지}χ﹛정선에이미 av﹜❤정선강원도 안마방♤정선합정 안마방◦정선하단 안마방▨정선안마방 스킬⇂정선창원 봉곡동 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 구미출장안마 .

    부산마사지 발기
    강진계룡시 안마방 바카라사이트 과천후두 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    정선출장맛사지⇋출장부르는법◘정선단양 안마방{정선남부터미널 안마방}✦﹛정선눈커지는 마사지﹜♦정선타이 안마방セ정선용산 마사지◎정선안마방 야동┖정선서울역 안마방⇛정선나무위키 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 목포출장샵 .

    정선출장맛사지↺예약금없는출장샵큐정선단양 안마방{정선성균관대역 마사지}√﹛정선안마방 조루﹜○정선하단 마사지➹정선오창 안마방♦정선영종도 안마방↫정선남양주시 안마방⇉정선낙성대 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 군산출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 양산정왕동 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    정선출장맛사지ヒ예약금없는출장샵☈정선단양 안마방{정선여고생 마사지}↙﹛정선유흥 마사지﹜↲정선계양구 안마방⊙정선안마방 여자친구╨정선천안 출장⇔정선안마방 부산✪정선울산 동구 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    정선출장맛사지⇘예약♙정선단양 안마방{정선안마}⇐﹛정선천안 안마방 후기﹜ラ정선엄태웅 안마방✔정선응암동 마사지♧정선전주 여관♣정선광주 안마방 추천☏정선지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 충청남도마사지 샤워기 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 수원출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 창원출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 김포아침에 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 창원출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    정선출장맛사지❀예약금없는출장샵▲정선단양 안마방{정선여대생 마사지}レ﹛정선옆광대 마사지﹜╣정선마사지 3만원❦정선여인숙 여자↱정선천안 조건◙정선평촌 안마방┵정선두통 완화 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: smatoos.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 군산출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    정선출장맛사지╮예약금없는출장샵╳정선단양 안마방{정선오피 안마방}☀﹛정선타이 마사지 단속﹜﹌정선장기동 안마방⇩정선광주 안마방 후기⇪정선이기광 안마방▶정선아비게일 마사지 토렌트☀정선대구 모텔 아가씨

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    군포마사지 간판구분
    서울출장안마 횡성삼산동 마사지 온라인카지노
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    정선출장맛사지►예약タ정선단양 안마방{정선군산 마사지}┷﹛정선나트랑 마사지﹜↓정선경산 마사지♕정선산호동 마사지⇪정선태국 마사지 후기☼정선안마방 긴밤┏정선면목동 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.정선출장맛사지정선금천구 안마방┱정선군자역 안마방⊙﹛정선세r시 마사지﹜정선호치민 안마방┖정선모유 마사지♢정선인계동 안마방 후기┅정선마사지황형♥진주출장샵예약정선에스코트 모델┚정선여성 마사지┓『정선경기 광주 마사지』정선오류동 마사지ρ정선안마방 입싸┘정선오피스 방➹정선마사지 만화♤정선출장맛사지장수엘프 마사지정선로미 로미 마사지 란✌정선이영학 안마방.<정선성신여대 마사지>정선안마방 초보⊙정선건전 마사지★정선안마방 vip✥정선거제 안마방╀정선발안 모텔✉정선안마방 대기◘<정선군포 안마방>정선카메라 마사지➻정선대구 안마방ψ정선출장걸λ정선안마방 몰 카┋정선거제도 모텔 추천☎정선나무위키 안마방✿〈정선대구 커플 동영상〉정선안마방 모닝콜유정선신림 모텔ε정선안마방 백마♚정선마사지 노출↝정선영천 마사지⇞정선안마방 마사지┕{정선대만 마사지}정선평촌 안마방✡정선실제 안마방☢정선일본 해수욕장 마사지☞정선족저근막염 마사지❤24시출장샵인천신림 모텔예약금없는출장샵정선마사지 교육☞정선콜걸출장마사지➷〖정선속초 안마방〗정선아가씨 출장❥정선부평 안마방₪정선하당 마사지✗정선동대구역 여관♣정선출장맛사지정선출장맛사지구미출장안마정선해수욕장 마사지 토렌트정선광명사거리 안마방정선방이동 안마방정선세부 안마방정선출장맛사지정선로미 마사지▧정선구글 안마방⇤【정선브베 안마방】정선목포 모텔 추천♗정선동작구 안마방⇛정선호이안 마사지▶정선마사지 태국어メ화성가슴 커지는 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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